1. Bar authorities and courts too often take extreme, over-literal views of the professional “ethics” rules that shape the legal services market.

2. Unsurprisingly, their interpretations frequently just protect attorneys from unwanted competition — not protecting clients from fraud or abuse.


As a lawyer, I take a strict, traditionalist view of legal “ethics” rules that truly pertain to honesty: Don’t lie to a judge, never allow yourself to be in a conflict with your client’s interest, etc.

And on eight or nine occasions I have withdrawn from representing a client where I believed that following their wishes would have the effect of making a misrepresentation to a counter-party in a deal, to a government official, or to a court (and where the client refused to make a disclosure I proposed to restore honesty to the situation).

But I believe that most of the “ethics” rules shaping the legal services market are little or no use in guarding clients from harm. Instead, they mostly protect lawyers from unwanted competition:

  • Part 2 — U.S. lawyers can’t practice law as part of an accounting firm.
  • Part 3 — Where an app connects you to a company that retains a lawyer for your traffic ticket case, and also puts a ceiling on the fine you have to pay, the app company violates legal “ethics” by “practicing law”.
  • Part 4 — If a client chooses an attorney after finding them on a client / lawyer matching service, the web listing is “referring” the lawyer to the client — even though it’s the client who selects the lawyer.

Each of the offerings prohibited in the above cases meets a legal need:

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1. is a legitimate, constructive solution to a legal need faced by the public that the legal profession seeks to shut down on “ethical” grounds”.

2. Legal “ethics” should be a shield to protect clients from fraud or abuse, not a sword for the legal profession to attack unwanted competitors.


Let’s say that you find yourself in need of a lawyer. And that you don’t know of any attorneys in your geographic area who are experts in the field you’re concerned with.

According to the California appellate court, whose ruling against the California Supreme Court summarily upheld (i.e., without an opinion) on March 11, 2020, this was how worked:

  • “LegalMatch sends information to lawyers based solely on the client’s selection of geographic location and area of expertise.”
  • “After the lawyers receive this information, each lawyer has the opportunity to affirmatively reach out to the individual [would-be client].
  • “Depending on the client’s preferences, the potential client may choose to send contact information to the lawyers so that they may continue their discussion outside of the platform.”
  • “Lawyers and clients negotiate between themselves to determine the parameters of their attorney-client relationship.”
  • “Each lawyer who purchases a subscription is slotted into a geographical location and category of legal expertise.”
  • “The number of lawyers in a geographic location and category of legal expertise is limited by an algorithm (allocation system) that maintains LegalMatch’s profitability by balancing the number of clients and lawyers available.”
  • “Potential clients may use the site for free.”
  • “LegalMatch receives no fee for the successful formation of an attorney-client relationship.”

This, in other words, was nothing more than a lawyer-client matching service. Nevertheless, this court held that amounted to an illegal lawyer “referral” service.

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1. TIKD was a legitimate, constructive solution to a legal need faced by the public that the legal profession seeks to shut down on “ethical” grounds.

2. Legal “ethics” should be a shield to protect clients from fraud or abuse, not a sword for the legal profession to attack unwanted competitors.


Let’s say you were driving in Miami (or elsewhere in South Florida, or Tampa metro area, or Washington, D.C., or specified counties in Maryland or California), and a police officer gave you a ticket for speeding.

Say it was for $200.

Until legal action by the Florida Bar and a traffic ticket lawyer forced it to suspend operations, a Coral Gables, Florida company called TIKD would offer you the following:

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1. Unlike countries in Europe and Asia, Big 4 accounting firms are prohibited from offering corporate legal services in the U.S.

2. Through its rule-making state bar authorities (made up of lawyers), the U.S. legal profession is fighting tooth-and-nail to keep it this way.


U.S. law firms tout their prowess as legal powerhouses that a serious business cannot safely do without. In quiet conversations with in-house counsels and P&L executives alike, attorneys from these firms unsubtly invoke the fear-and-dependency that an earlier generation expressed this way:

“Nobody was ever fired for hiring IBM.”

For attorneys who sell their services this way, the last thing they want is competition from the likes of EY, PwC, Deloitte, and KPMG for substantial corporate legal work. 

That (along with other aspects of legal market structure) is what’s at stake in the following, arcane-sounding, legal “ethics” prohibition:

“A lawyer or law firm shall not share legal fees with a nonlawyer”.*

Big 4 accounting firms have been practicing law outside the United States for a couple of decades.

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1. “Ethics” rules are the main determinant of how the legal market is structured: Who can do what? With whom? What is “practicing law”?

2. After decades of practicing business law, I believe that “ethics” rules structuring the market for legal services are largely about protecting lawyers from unwanted competition.


The legal profession decides who can do what in solving businesses’ legal problems.

They decide the circumstances in which lawyers may — and may not — work with people whom lawyers call “nonlawyers”. And they decide if solving a particular type of legal problem amounts to “practicing law” — something that only a licensed attorney is allowed to do.

The legal profession makes these decisions through state bar authorities that adopt rules of professional “ethics”.

Those state bar authorities are made up of … well … lawyers.

In the United States, attorneys set for themselves the competitive boundaries of markets in which they can sell their services — and in which they use the force of law to forbid others to compete with them.   Continue reading

Speed-to-contract is vital to your revenues.

As a P&L executive you know that.

As a former P&L executive — now practicing law — I know that.

But too many lawyers just don’t. They focus on verbal tweaks and “improvements” that hold up the process.

It was only after I accepted a corporate client’s invitation to leave law practice and run one of its divisions that I understood how important timely execution is to doing the deal. Until then I was preoccupied, like most of my lawyer colleagues, with constant adjustment of terms in pursuit of a legally perfect document.

Of course the answer can’t be that we eliminate attorneys’ contribution to all this. Speed-to-contract that ends up with the wrong contract terms is self-defeating.

But now there’s technology that helps to accelerate the pace, while incorporating good legal guidance into a much more agile and timely process.

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Last Thursday (March 5, 2020) I was, for the umpteenth time, shocked to be reminded of how un-businesslike the legal industry’s billable hour-based business model really is.

I say “un-businesslike” rather than “crazy” — or something more colorful — because the clients I serve are businesses themselves. And their businesses succeed or fail based on their results.

The legal industry (the vast majority at least) demands that their client businesses pay on the basis of lawyers’ inputs. And as I explain below, law firms charging by the billable hour business model routinely misstate what those inputs are.

So it’s no wonder that lawyers and business people have such a hard time understanding each other.

They literally occupy different universes.

From a commercial standpoint at least.

So what shocked me last Thursday?

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P&L executives need to know that there are good places — and bad places — to find the specialist lawyer your company needs for an important task.

I recount the following with my wife’s permission:

An alert physician identified a problem with the way her body was regulating calcium.

Her internist described three options for the needed parathyroid surgery:

Two of the most prestigious medical centers in our hometown of Chicago — and Tampa General Hospital.

The two Chicago options reported that they performed between 10 and 20 of these surgeries each month.

Tampa General Hospital: 180 per month (later we received reports of a higher number).

Two months later we flew to Tampa.

Results were perfect.

That’s the upbeat part of the story.

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P&L executives concerned with managing legal risk and controlling legal costs should know that artificial intelligence (AI) promises greater accuracy and lower costs in litigation tasks. If and when the legal industry adopts the technology.

And last month some of this promise appears to have been realized in some concrete, and economically accessible, terms. Again, conditional on actually acceptance and use of this AI. 

For a business, litigation is (usually) a huge waste of money. And a large chunk of this wasted money goes to formal requests that lawyers make to judges. Requests that they and their adversaries spend lots of time (read “money”) fighting over in front of a judge.

It’s called “motion practice”: Your honor, please dismiss this case; please exclude this testimony; please make my adversary give me the papers in their files that I want to look at; etc.

In a legal industry where the number of hours billed (usually) defines value, this typically results in each law firm assigning not just a litigation veteran whom they put in charge of the case — but also multiple, less-experienced attorneys to maximize those hours billed.

How do these less-experienced attorneys fit in here? Happily (for the legal industry’s business model at least), “motion practice” requires lots of what those recent law grads were trained to do when still in law school: Researching cases, statutes, and rules; and creating “briefs” that describe why those legal authorities require that their client’s requests (via this “motion practice”) should be granted.

Late last month, Casetext, a legal tech firm known for its artificial intelligence (AI) research tool “Case Analysis Research Assistant” (CARA), announced “Compose”, their automated brief-writing product.

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On bringing to Legal the same cost, staffing, and technology disciplines that apply everywhere else in the business enterprise — other than Legal — cooler heads have emerged. But they have not yet prevailed.

Many lawyers still blow litigation dangers and regulatory peril out of proportion to their real magnitude and immediacy.

Hit them in a particular mood, and they will advise executives — actually, they will threaten them — that cost efficiencies in the management of legal risk will court business catastrophe.

In my experience as an executive, such overreaction is more common in the legal profession’s interaction with business clients than less dramatic, practical judgment.

But there are some cooler heads out there, and they have ideas that are useful in differentiating between legal tasks. 

Just last week Bruce MacEwan, and his two partners in a consultancy to law firms called AdamSmith, Esq., began a series on what’s called “segmentation” of law firms.

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